Biodiversitatea zonei – importanţa ştiinţifică şi culturală
The European importance of the High Nature Value landscape of the Tarnava Mare area has only been recognised in the last few years. It is now seen in Romania, and in Europe, as a high priority area for the conservation of its still-working ecology, and for studies to understand how such areas can be preserved or (much more difficult) restored elsewhere in Europe.
Fundaţia ADEPT is proud to have been one of the leaders of this process of recognition.
Why is it so important?
This kind of landscape has almost entirely disappeared in lowland (under 800m) Europe. High Nature Value pastoral landscapes exist quite widely in the European Alps and Carpathians, but are extremely rare in lowland Europe.
Puține asemenea urme ale peisajului medieval dăinuiesc în Europa- iar unde acestea au supraviețuit, rareori întâlnim sate și agricultura asociată acestora intacte. Atât flora cât și fauna zonei sunt impresionante. Zona de câmpie este gazda nu numai celor mai vaste pajiști non-alpine din Europa și a unei bogății excepționale în flori sălbatice dar aici trăiesc și ultimele exemplare de urși și lupi de câmpie ale continentului.
A man-made, semi-natural landscape
The biodiversity of man-made landscapes is often richer than that of wilderness areas, because the mosaic of habitats encourages species diversity. And their protection is more complex, since the interests of local human populations must be taken into account, and the continuation of traditional land management encouraged.
This kind of landscape with low-input farming is increasingly relevant in current economic conditions. Satele, organizarea lor, practicile agricole și peisajul oferă o oportunitate pentru studierea ecologiei istorice prin observare directă. Satele dețin un patrimoniu bogat de pomi fructiferi, flori, și plante medicinale cărora industria farmaceutică le acordă atenție din nou. Flora este o resursă genetică și pentru agricultură, fiind bogată în plante furajere cum ar fi lucerna și trifoiul, și specii anexe cum ar fi verzele sălbatice.
Conservation of the Târnava Mare area through Natura 2000 and agri-environment
The special landscape and biodiversity of the Sighisoara-Târnave Mare area merits statutory protection. Landscape-scale conservation will prevent fragmentation of the extensive, rich, inter-dependent habitats. Natura 2000.
Since 2004, ADEPT and a team of university and NGO partners have carried out field studies to build up the data required for inscribing the 85,000 ha area in the Natura 2000 network. As a result, the application received final EU Commission approval in 2008. ADEPT and collaborators are designing a comprehensive plan for managing and protecting the mosaic of habitats and the species that inhabit them, and compensating farmers. Natura 2000 status will assist this process. Further details.Agri-environment.
Measures are needed to improve the future for traditional agriculture and increase the incomes of small-scale traditional farmers, at the same time as ensuring conservation of biodiversity. These activities are supported by EU grants under the Romanian National Rural Development Plan (NRDP). Fundaţia ADEPT is working closely with the Romanian Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Development to promote this balanced approach. Further details.Ecosystem services.
Conservation of such landscapes can also be promoted through proper valuation and recompense for ecosystem services. Further details
Research: Târnava Mare as a model for the conservation of High Nature Value farmed landscapes across EuropeBiodiversity research and conservation
Considerable work has been carried out under the Darwin Initiative programme, co-financed by Orange Romania, in creating an inventory and GIS-database of habitats and species that are protected under EU Habitats Directive, and work continues on practical management measures - Further details
At the same time, ADEPT is carrying our specific work on the key aspect of these unique landscapes: the wildflower-rich grassland which have disappeared except in pockets across lowland Europe.
There is a steady decline across Europe in grassland habitat extent and quality, in grassland diversity, and in wildlife associated with grasslands, in spite of considerable state and NGO sector efforts to prevent this. The objectives of the EU‘s 2010 countdown initiative are not being met.
To increase our understanding of the problems, and solutions, Fundaţia ADEPT is carrying out studies in collaboration with Romanian and international universities to compare Tarnava Mare‘s relatively intact traditional farming systems with farmed landscapes in western Europe. A suite of indicator species is being studied in the area
. Further details
Flora şi fauna
Aceste specii sunt fragile și necesită măsuri de conservare specifice pentru asigurarea supraviețuirii lor.
Akeroyd, J. R. & Page, N. (2006) The Saxon Villages of Southern Transylvania: Conserving Biodiversity in a Historic Landscape. In Gafta, D. & Akeroyd, J.[R.], Eds (2006) Nature Conservation: Concepts And Practice, pp. 199–210. Springer Verlag, Heidelburg, Germany.
Curtean-Bănăduc, A., Bănăduc, B., and Sîrbu, I., Eds (2007) Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research, 4 – The Saxon Villages Region of southeast Transylvania
, 216 pages, Editura Universităţii „Lucian Blaga” Sibiu, ISSN 1841-7051.
Jones, A. (2007) The challenge of High Nature Value grassland conservation in Transylvania.
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research, 4 .
See also references
for further reading on the area.